The Biotech Dictionary

What is a genome?

A genome is an organism's complete set of genes (DNA). DNA molecules are made of two twisting, paired strands. 

What is sequencing a genome?

Sequence of genes that determine the physical patrimony of each singular person, identifying every part of the DNA.

Antisense Drugs

Molecules able to deactivate particular genes (the ones linked to the illnesses) 

Monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibody therapy uses antibodies that are made in the lab rather than by a person’s own immune system (however really similar to them). They can be made in large quantities in the laboratory and are a cornerstone of immunology. 

Once the antibodies are given, they may recruit other parts of the immune system to destroy the targeted antigen, such as a cancer cell. They are increasingly coming into use as therapeutic agents.

Therefore a monoclonal antibody is a single pure type of antibody.

Proteasome inhibitor

Disruption of proteasome activity consists in stopping the growth and the proliferation of problematic cells (as cancer cells). 

The conclusion is : apoptosis which determines the programmed death of the cell. 

Regenerative medicine

creation of tissues using stem cells that provide, repair, replace or restore structures and functions absent or lost due to congenital defects,  ageing, disease, or such as the brain , heart, or kidneys. 


are medical treatment used to replace an enzyme in patients in whom that particular enzyme is deficient or absent. 

Cellular homeostasis: (stayingthe same)

Regulation of cell number and cell size to maintain organ size and function


Many diseases involve a disturbance of homeostasis.

As the organism ages, the efficiency in its control systems becomes reduced. The inefficiencies gradually result in an unstable internal environment that increases the risk of illness, and leads to the physical changes associated with aging.

Certain homeostatic imbalances, such as high core temperature, a high concentration of salt in the blood, or low concentration of oxygen, can generate homeostatic emotions (such as warmth, thirst, or breathlessness), which motivate behavior aimed at restoring homeostasis (such as removing a sweater, drinking or slowing down).



Of particular interest to the scientists are the ends of each chromosome known as telomeres. Telomeres have no genetic function; they are simply stretches of DNA (repeats of base pairs) that protect the rest of the chromosome. These little bits of DNA are critical to healthy cell function and have been likened to the plastic tips on shoelaces because they prevent the chromosome from “fraying.”

Scientists have only recently begun to understand the critical importance of shortened telomeres. Research has shown that people over 60 who have long telomeres experience greater heart and immune system health than their age-matched counterparts with shorter telomeres. Thus, it is becoming well-understood that maintaining telomere length is preventing age-related decline.

Telomerase inhibitor


Telomerase is expressed in most types of tumors but not in most somatic cells. This observation has led to two hypotheses; (i) telomerase activity is necessary for the proliferation of cancer cells; and (ii) telomerase inhibitors are a powerful strategy for cancer chemotherapy. 

In 2009, Elizabeth Balckburn, Carol Greiderand Jack Szostakreceived the Nobel price for their work on that subject. 

This represents one of the possible next steps.